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The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L

Will Beard, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, Nick Barnard, Thomas Jones, Jack Adams

Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume: 864, Start page: 144593

Swansea University Authors: Will Beard, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, Nick Barnard

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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are currently under consideration for marine based components, predominantly due to the numerous benefits that the techniques have to offer over more conventional manufacturing routes. However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated w...

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Published in: Materials Science and Engineering: A
ISSN: 0921-5093
Published: Elsevier BV 2023
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa62265
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Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are currently under consideration for marine based components, predominantly due to the numerous benefits that the techniques have to offer over more conventional manufacturing routes. However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated with the introduction of AM based parts into safety critical applications related to the mechanical behaviour of such components. One of the main factors influencing the cyclic performance of a component is the surface finish. As-built AM parts typically exhibit a rough surface owing to partially melted powder being present at the surface and the layer-by-layer nature of the AM process, which together will likely hinder the fatigue response of the component. This behaviour is further influenced by the build orientation of the AM component, with alternative orientations providing a different surface profile alongside a contrasting microstructural morphology. Therefore, alternative finishing methods have been explored to maximise the fatigue performance of components whilst also considering cost and time. This research will explore the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of laser powder bed fused (LPBF) stainless steel 316L (SS316LN) built in two principal orientations (vertical (90°) and diagonal (45°)) and subsequently subjected to several post-manufacture finishing processes in order to identify the optimal finish for mechanical performance. The mechanical results are supported by microstructural, fractographic and advanced surface profilometry assessments, which have revealed that surface roughness can not be considered alone to be the controlling influence on LCF behaviour. An as-built surface finish will inherently provide a greater number of surface breaking stress raisers, however, a novel mass finishing polishing procedure has been found to produce a similar effective stress concentration factor compared to conventional longitudinal polishing, offering a more viable and less time consuming alternative. Several other key factors must also be considered when assessing the fatigue performance of LPBF built materials, including build direction and the resulting grain orientation, density of the additive structure and the material's sensitivity to the presence of notched features at the surface. Finally, the generated mechanical data has also been interpreted through empirical modelling, and the various data sets have been successfully correlated to enable longer fatigue life predictions.
Keywords: Laser powder bed fusion, Low cycle fatigue, Stainless steel 316L, Surface roughness, Build orientation
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: EPSRC, EP/H500383/1,EP/H022309/1
Start Page: 144593