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Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with r...

Emily Marchant Orcid Logo, Emily Lowthian Orcid Logo, Tom Crick Orcid Logo, Lucy Griffiths Orcid Logo, Rich Fry Orcid Logo, Kevin Dadaczynski, Orkan Okan, Michaela James Orcid Logo, Laura Cowley, Fatemeh Torabi Orcid Logo, Jonathan Kennedy, Ashley Akbari Orcid Logo, Ronan Lyons Orcid Logo, Sinead Brophy Orcid Logo

BMJ Open, Volume: 12, Issue: 9, Start page: e061344

Swansea University Authors: Emily Marchant Orcid Logo, Tom Crick Orcid Logo, Lucy Griffiths Orcid Logo, Rich Fry Orcid Logo, Michaela James Orcid Logo, Laura Cowley, Fatemeh Torabi Orcid Logo, Jonathan Kennedy, Ashley Akbari Orcid Logo, Ronan Lyons Orcid Logo, Sinead Brophy Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021.Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January...

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ISSN: 2044-6055 2044-6055
Published: BMJ 2022
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Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity &#x2265;60 min (1&#x2013;2&#x2009;days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74; 3&#x2013;4&#x2009;days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82; reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90; quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood.Conclusions Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>BMJ Open</journal><volume>12</volume><journalNumber>9</journalNumber><paginationStart>e061344</paginationStart><paginationEnd/><publisher>BMJ</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>2044-6055</issnPrint><issnElectronic>2044-6055</issnElectronic><keywords/><publishedDay>7</publishedDay><publishedMonth>9</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2022</publishedYear><publishedDate>2022-09-07</publishedDate><doi>10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061344</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Education</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>EDUC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm>SU Library paid the OA fee (TA Institutional Deal)</apcterm><funders>Economic and Social Research Council - ES/J500197/1, ES/S007393/1; HDR UK Ltd - HDR-9006; Medical Research Council - MC_PC_20030, MR/V028367/1</funders><projectreference/><lastEdited>2022-09-23T16:53:04.2984239</lastEdited><Created>2022-08-17T16:07:48.5991952</Created><path><level id="1">Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences</level><level id="2">Swansea University Medical School - Medicine</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Emily</firstname><surname>Marchant</surname><orcid>0000-0002-9701-5991</orcid><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Emily</firstname><surname>Lowthian</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9362-0046</orcid><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Tom</firstname><surname>Crick</surname><orcid>0000-0001-5196-9389</orcid><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Lucy</firstname><surname>Griffiths</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9230-624X</orcid><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Rich</firstname><surname>Fry</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7968-6679</orcid><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Kevin</firstname><surname>Dadaczynski</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>Orkan</firstname><surname>Okan</surname><order>7</order></author><author><firstname>Michaela</firstname><surname>James</surname><orcid>0000-0001-7047-0049</orcid><order>8</order></author><author><firstname>Laura</firstname><surname>Cowley</surname><order>9</order></author><author><firstname>Fatemeh</firstname><surname>Torabi</surname><orcid>0000-0002-5853-4625</orcid><order>10</order></author><author><firstname>Jonathan</firstname><surname>Kennedy</surname><orcid/><order>11</order></author><author><firstname>Ashley</firstname><surname>Akbari</surname><orcid>0000-0003-0814-0801</orcid><order>12</order></author><author><firstname>Ronan</firstname><surname>Lyons</surname><orcid>0000-0001-5225-000X</orcid><order>13</order></author><author><firstname>Sinead</firstname><surname>Brophy</surname><orcid>0000-0001-7417-2858</orcid><order>14</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>60846__25212__5c6d216ed18846348da234194b47213a.pdf</filename><originalFilename>60846_VoR.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2022-09-23T16:51:03.4677812</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>711925</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><documentNotes>&#xA9; Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. 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spelling 2022-09-23T16:53:04.2984239 v2 60846 2022-08-17 Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK d68adb6744707b3bd75e07bd334d0516 0000-0002-9701-5991 Emily Marchant Emily Marchant true false 200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99 0000-0001-5196-9389 Tom Crick Tom Crick true false e35ea6ea4b429e812ef204b048131d93 0000-0001-9230-624X Lucy Griffiths Lucy Griffiths true false d499b898d447b62c81b2c122598870e0 0000-0002-7968-6679 Rich Fry Rich Fry true false 9a717d184fb8f768e462d95b91e63e23 0000-0001-7047-0049 Michaela James Michaela James true false a80501f280e89fee276510b25fc68e77 Laura Cowley Laura Cowley true false f569591e1bfb0e405b8091f99fec45d3 0000-0002-5853-4625 Fatemeh Torabi Fatemeh Torabi true false 08163d1f58d7fefcb1c695bcc2e0ef68 Jonathan Kennedy Jonathan Kennedy true false aa1b025ec0243f708bb5eb0a93d6fb52 0000-0003-0814-0801 Ashley Akbari Ashley Akbari true false 83efcf2a9dfcf8b55586999d3d152ac6 0000-0001-5225-000X Ronan Lyons Ronan Lyons true false 84f5661b35a729f55047f9e793d8798b 0000-0001-7417-2858 Sinead Brophy Sinead Brophy true false 2022-08-17 EDUC Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021.Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results.Setting Children attending primary schools in Wales (2018–2020), UK, who were part of the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network (HAPPEN)_school network.Participants Complete linked records of eligible participants were obtained for n=7062 individuals. 39.1% (n=2764) were tested (age 10.6±0.9; 48.9% girls) and 8.1% (n=569) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (age 10.6±1.0; 54.5% girls).Main outcome measures Logistic regression of health-related behaviours and demographics were used to determine the ORs of factors associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.Results Consuming sugary snacks (1–2 days/week OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49; 5–6 days/week OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61; reference 0 days), can swim 25 m (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39) and age (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) were associated with an increased likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity ≥60 min (1–2 days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74; 3–4 days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82; reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90; quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood.Conclusions Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development. Journal Article BMJ Open 12 9 e061344 BMJ 2044-6055 2044-6055 7 9 2022 2022-09-07 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061344 COLLEGE NANME Education COLLEGE CODE EDUC Swansea University SU Library paid the OA fee (TA Institutional Deal) Economic and Social Research Council - ES/J500197/1, ES/S007393/1; HDR UK Ltd - HDR-9006; Medical Research Council - MC_PC_20030, MR/V028367/1 2022-09-23T16:53:04.2984239 2022-08-17T16:07:48.5991952 Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences Swansea University Medical School - Medicine Emily Marchant 0000-0002-9701-5991 1 Emily Lowthian 0000-0001-9362-0046 2 Tom Crick 0000-0001-5196-9389 3 Lucy Griffiths 0000-0001-9230-624X 4 Rich Fry 0000-0002-7968-6679 5 Kevin Dadaczynski 6 Orkan Okan 7 Michaela James 0000-0001-7047-0049 8 Laura Cowley 9 Fatemeh Torabi 0000-0002-5853-4625 10 Jonathan Kennedy 11 Ashley Akbari 0000-0003-0814-0801 12 Ronan Lyons 0000-0001-5225-000X 13 Sinead Brophy 0000-0001-7417-2858 14 60846__25212__5c6d216ed18846348da234194b47213a.pdf 60846_VoR.pdf 2022-09-23T16:51:03.4677812 Output 711925 application/pdf Version of Record true © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
spellingShingle Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
Emily Marchant
Tom Crick
Lucy Griffiths
Rich Fry
Michaela James
Laura Cowley
Fatemeh Torabi
Jonathan Kennedy
Ashley Akbari
Ronan Lyons
Sinead Brophy
title_short Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
title_full Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
title_fullStr Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
title_full_unstemmed Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
title_sort Pre-COVID-19 pandemic health-related behaviours in children (2018–2020) and association with being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2020–2021): a retrospective cohort study using survey data linked with routine health data in Wales, UK
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author_id_fullname_str_mv d68adb6744707b3bd75e07bd334d0516_***_Emily Marchant
200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99_***_Tom Crick
e35ea6ea4b429e812ef204b048131d93_***_Lucy Griffiths
d499b898d447b62c81b2c122598870e0_***_Rich Fry
9a717d184fb8f768e462d95b91e63e23_***_Michaela James
a80501f280e89fee276510b25fc68e77_***_Laura Cowley
f569591e1bfb0e405b8091f99fec45d3_***_Fatemeh Torabi
08163d1f58d7fefcb1c695bcc2e0ef68_***_Jonathan Kennedy
aa1b025ec0243f708bb5eb0a93d6fb52_***_Ashley Akbari
83efcf2a9dfcf8b55586999d3d152ac6_***_Ronan Lyons
84f5661b35a729f55047f9e793d8798b_***_Sinead Brophy
author Emily Marchant
Tom Crick
Lucy Griffiths
Rich Fry
Michaela James
Laura Cowley
Fatemeh Torabi
Jonathan Kennedy
Ashley Akbari
Ronan Lyons
Sinead Brophy
author2 Emily Marchant
Emily Lowthian
Tom Crick
Lucy Griffiths
Rich Fry
Kevin Dadaczynski
Orkan Okan
Michaela James
Laura Cowley
Fatemeh Torabi
Jonathan Kennedy
Ashley Akbari
Ronan Lyons
Sinead Brophy
format Journal article
container_title BMJ Open
container_volume 12
container_issue 9
container_start_page e061344
publishDate 2022
institution Swansea University
issn 2044-6055
2044-6055
doi_str_mv 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061344
publisher BMJ
college_str Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id facultyofmedicinehealthandlifesciences
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofmedicinehealthandlifesciences
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
department_str Swansea University Medical School - Medicine{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Swansea University Medical School - Medicine
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description Objectives Examine if pre-COVID-19 pandemic (prior March 2020) health-related behaviours during primary school are associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021.Design Retrospective cohort study using an online cohort survey (January 2018 to February 2020) linked with routine PCR SARS-CoV-2 test results.Setting Children attending primary schools in Wales (2018–2020), UK, who were part of the Health and Attainment of Pupils in a Primary Education Network (HAPPEN)_school network.Participants Complete linked records of eligible participants were obtained for n=7062 individuals. 39.1% (n=2764) were tested (age 10.6±0.9; 48.9% girls) and 8.1% (n=569) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (age 10.6±1.0; 54.5% girls).Main outcome measures Logistic regression of health-related behaviours and demographics were used to determine the ORs of factors associated with (1) being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and (2) testing positive for SARS-CoV-2.Results Consuming sugary snacks (1–2 days/week OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.49; 5–6 days/week OR=1.31, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.61; reference 0 days), can swim 25 m (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.39) and age (OR=1.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.35) were associated with an increased likelihood of being tested for SARS-CoV-2. Eating breakfast (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.27), weekly physical activity ≥60 min (1–2 days OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.74; 3–4 days OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.82; reference 0 days), out-of-school club participation (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.10), can ride a bike (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.93), age (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.28) and girls (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46) were associated with an increased likelihood of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Living in least deprived areas (quintile 4 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.90; quintile 5 OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.89) compared with the most deprived (quintile 1) was associated with a decreased likelihood.Conclusions Associations may be related to parental health literacy and monitoring behaviours. Physically active behaviours may include coparticipation with others and exposure to SARS-CoV-2. A risk-versus-benefit approach must be considered in relation to promoting these health behaviours, given the importance of health-related behaviours such as childhood physical activity for development.
published_date 2022-09-07T04:11:40Z
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