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Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies / Saeed Askari, Ehsanollah Ettefaghi, Alimorad Rashidi, Abdolvahab Seif, Jennifer Rudd, Julio A. Alonso, Saeid Khodabakhshi

Energy Reports, Volume: 7, Pages: 4222 - 4234

Swansea University Authors: Jennifer Rudd, Saeid Khodabakhshi

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Abstract

A facile hydrothermal method was applied to synthesize functionalized-carbon dot nanoparticles. The analysis revealed a low crystallinity with amorphous nature for particles with a size below 17 nm, which were functionalized with oxygen (17.9%) and nitrogen (12.2%). A nanofluid was formed by dispers...

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Published in: Energy Reports
ISSN: 2352-4847
Published: Elsevier BV 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa57426
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spelling 2021-08-19T16:47:54.9870295 v2 57426 2021-07-20 Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies c2e4cf0f048a86b5ca2f331e6c566aff 0000-0002-5209-477X Jennifer Rudd Jennifer Rudd true false 547fd5929a2fd30733277eca799fbf9b Saeid Khodabakhshi Saeid Khodabakhshi true false 2021-07-20 BBU A facile hydrothermal method was applied to synthesize functionalized-carbon dot nanoparticles. The analysis revealed a low crystallinity with amorphous nature for particles with a size below 17 nm, which were functionalized with oxygen (17.9%) and nitrogen (12.2%). A nanofluid was formed by dispersing the nanoparticles in a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The zeta potential measurement confirmed the stability of the nanofluid (-61.5 mV). Viscosity and density measurements revealed that the suspended nanoparticles did not noticeably increase the viscosity (maximum 8%) and density (maximum 1.2%). The thermal conductivity increased as temperature and nanoparticle concentration increased, and a maximum enhancement of 21% was obtained at 45 °C and 0.5 Wt%. Then, the convection heat transfer was investigated in the turbulent regime. The results showed a remarkable enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient (34%) at the Reynolds number of 15529 and 0.5 Wt%. Finally, the density functional theory (DFT) method was applied to interpret the long-term stability of the nanofluid. These results showed that the surface functional groups play a prominent role in the stability of the nanofluids. The calculations indicate that the bonding between the functionalized nanoparticles and the solvent fluid occurs through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic dipolar interactions. Journal Article Energy Reports 7 4222 4234 Elsevier BV 2352-4847 Functionalized-carbon dots, Ultra-stable nanofluid, Heat transfer, Thermo-physical properties, DFT 1 11 2021 2021-11-01 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.07.001 COLLEGE NANME Business COLLEGE CODE BBU Swansea University 2021-08-19T16:47:54.9870295 2021-07-20T10:57:42.1219761 College of Engineering Engineering Saeed Askari 1 Ehsanollah Ettefaghi 2 Alimorad Rashidi 3 Abdolvahab Seif 4 Jennifer Rudd 0000-0002-5209-477X 5 Julio A. Alonso 6 Saeid Khodabakhshi 7 57426__20428__1399d0c904dc41c6951c2842be32d237.pdf 57426.pdf 2021-07-20T10:59:31.0265570 Output 2176134 application/pdf Version of Record true © 2021 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND true eng
title Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
spellingShingle Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
Jennifer, Rudd
Saeid, Khodabakhshi
title_short Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
title_full Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
title_fullStr Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
title_full_unstemmed Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
title_sort Ultra-stable nanofluid containing Functionalized-Carbon Dots for heat transfer enhancement in Water/Ethylene glycol systems: Experimental and DFT studies
author_id_str_mv c2e4cf0f048a86b5ca2f331e6c566aff
547fd5929a2fd30733277eca799fbf9b
author_id_fullname_str_mv c2e4cf0f048a86b5ca2f331e6c566aff_***_Jennifer, Rudd
547fd5929a2fd30733277eca799fbf9b_***_Saeid, Khodabakhshi
author Jennifer, Rudd
Saeid, Khodabakhshi
author2 Saeed Askari
Ehsanollah Ettefaghi
Alimorad Rashidi
Abdolvahab Seif
Jennifer Rudd
Julio A. Alonso
Saeid Khodabakhshi
format Journal article
container_title Energy Reports
container_volume 7
container_start_page 4222
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 2352-4847
doi_str_mv 10.1016/j.egyr.2021.07.001
publisher Elsevier BV
college_str College of Engineering
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hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
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description A facile hydrothermal method was applied to synthesize functionalized-carbon dot nanoparticles. The analysis revealed a low crystallinity with amorphous nature for particles with a size below 17 nm, which were functionalized with oxygen (17.9%) and nitrogen (12.2%). A nanofluid was formed by dispersing the nanoparticles in a mixture of water and ethylene glycol. The zeta potential measurement confirmed the stability of the nanofluid (-61.5 mV). Viscosity and density measurements revealed that the suspended nanoparticles did not noticeably increase the viscosity (maximum 8%) and density (maximum 1.2%). The thermal conductivity increased as temperature and nanoparticle concentration increased, and a maximum enhancement of 21% was obtained at 45 °C and 0.5 Wt%. Then, the convection heat transfer was investigated in the turbulent regime. The results showed a remarkable enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient (34%) at the Reynolds number of 15529 and 0.5 Wt%. Finally, the density functional theory (DFT) method was applied to interpret the long-term stability of the nanofluid. These results showed that the surface functional groups play a prominent role in the stability of the nanofluids. The calculations indicate that the bonding between the functionalized nanoparticles and the solvent fluid occurs through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic dipolar interactions.
published_date 2021-11-01T04:20:54Z
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